A small Shiite sect more properly known as the Nizari Ismailis, the Assassins were relatively few, geographically dispersed, and despised as heretics by both the Sunni Muslim majority and even by most other Shiites. By conventional standards, the Assassins should have been no match for the superior conventional military power of any of their many enemies.
Tweet The Janus choice: It appears in official government reports and has been cited by the defense secretary in articles and speeches.
However, it is not clear this usage is based on a common understanding of what a hybrid threat or hybrid warfare entails.
Hence, this article details an array of definitions and debates their merits and an alternative concept — compound war. It also provides a preliminary overview of ongoing historical study related to this issue. Some colleagues resist new adjectives and prefer to retain oversimplified depictions of warfare in two distinct bins: I do not share their concerns about new adjectives if they help us think about, debate and prepare for the future.
I have greater concerns about preparing for the future by just looking backward. I fear we face a more complex phase in the ever-evolving character of modern conflict, and that a Janus-like approach would allow us to better understand modern conflict and better prepare our operating forces for success.
We need a sound appreciation of history, and we need to understand the ever-evolving character of the emerging future all at the same time.
In short, as warfare evolves, which Clausewitz reminds us it will do in every age, our professional lexicon should evolve, too. Gian Gentile of the U. Military Academy posed a number of unique insights into the debate about future threats.
Ranadivé’s basketball team played in the National Junior Basketball seventh-and-eighth-grade division, representing Redwood City. The girls practiced at Paye’s Place, a gym in nearby San Carlos. The American Documents for the Study of History AMDOCS is maintained by an unfunded group of volunteers dedicated to providing quality materials for free public access, and was founded in The Richmond Campaign of The Peninsula and the Seven Days (Military Campaigns of the Civil War) [Gary W. Gallagher] on srmvision.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Richmond campaign of April-July ranks as one of the most important military operations of the first years of the American Civil War. Key political.
Neither author found the construct clear or of much value. Nathan Freier of the Center for Strategic and International Studies was one of the originators of the hybrid warfare construct when he worked in the Office of the Secretary of Defense on the national defense strategy.
This strategy noted that in the future, the most complex threats would be combinations of these four. Dave Kilcullen is another advocate.
Yet, he emphasizes combinations of irregular modes of conflict, including civil wars, insurgency and terrorism. Other contributors to hybrid wars find more utility in conceptualizing the hybrid threat in terms of how the adversary is organized or his legal status states and nonstate actors as proxies.
Many military theorists are uncomfortable with this element and do not want to deal with something our culture curtly dismisses as a law enforcement matter.
But the nexus between criminal and terrorist organizations is well-established, and the rise of narco-terrorist and nefarious transnational organizations that use smuggling, drugs, human trafficking, extortion, etc.
The importance of poppy production in Afghanistan reinforces this assessment. Additionally, the growing challenge of gangs as a form of disruptive force inside America and in Mexico portends greater problems down the road.
I define a hybrid threat as: Any adversary that simultaneously and adaptively employs a fused mix of conventional weapons, irregular tactics, terrorism and criminal behavior in the battle space to obtain their political objectives. There are a number of issues raised by my definition.
These include five distinct elements of the definition: Does the force have to simultaneously employ four different modes of conflict or demonstrate the capacity to employ all four during a campaign? Does the force have to fuse different forces, regular and irregular, into the theater or must it mix different modes of conflict?
How much coordination qualifies and at what level of war? Does an actor have to mix all four modes, or are three out of four sufficient to make it hybrid? Is criminality a deliberate mode of conflict, or simply a source of income or support for gangs and the Taliban?
My definition incorporates these elements, so my own determination on these questions should be clear. However, the plethora of definitions in the literature is generating the perception of vagueness.
Over the past few years, I have delved deeper into a number of case histories. Huber notes that great captains have often been frustrated by guerrilla warfare that is used in concert with a regular force.Why did Lincoln's election in lead to Civil War in ?
srmvision.come By sectional tensions within the Union had reached their peak. Buchanan's presidency saw a major increase in sectional animosity.
This was due to events such as the Dred Scott ruling, John Browns raid and the support of the. The Civil War started with the Confederate shelling of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, on April 12, Washington Territory was just under eight years old and more than a quarter century away from statehood.
This post was published last year at this time and since my students are preparing essays on the subject I thought I might offer it once again.
Today my Civil War classes finished watching the movie Glory, which is still my all-time favorite Civil War movie. Students enjoy the movie in part because. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders.
From Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. The word history comes from the Greek word historía which means "to learn or know by inquiry." In the pieces that follow, we encourage you to probe, dispute, dig deeper — inquire. History is not static. Course Summary History US History I has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.