Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other. Transfer processes within Europe and in the colonies show that not only genuine colonial powers such as Spain and England, but also "latecomers" such as Germany participated in the historical process of colonial expansion with which Europe decisively shaped world history. In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself.
Maritime expansion, driven by commercial ambitions and by competition with Franceaccelerated in the 17th century and resulted in the establishment of settlements in North America and the West Indies.
Slave trading had begun earlier in Sierra Leonebut that region did not become a British possession until Nearly all these early settlements arose from the enterprise of particular companies and magnates rather than from any effort on the part of the English crown. The crown exercised some rights of appointment and supervision, but the colonies were essentially self-managing enterprises.
The formation of the empire was thus an unorganized process based on piecemeal acquisition, sometimes with the British government being the least willing partner in the enterprise. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the crown exercised control over its colonies chiefly in the areas of trade and shipping.
In accordance with the mercantilist philosophy of the time, the colonies were regarded as a source of necessary raw materials for England and were granted monopolies for their products, such as tobacco and sugar, in the British market.
In return, they were expected to conduct all their trade by means of English ships and to serve as markets for British manufactured goods.
The Navigation Act of and subsequent acts set up a closed economy between Britain and its colonies; all colonial exports had to be shipped on English ships to the British market, and all colonial imports had to come by way of England. Competition with France British military and naval power, under the leadership of such men as Robert CliveJames Wolfeand Eyre Cootegained for Britain two of the most important parts of its empire—Canada and India.
Malacca joined the empire inand Sir Stamford Raffles acquired Singapore in Dominance and dominions The 19th century marked the full flower of the British Empire. That office, which began inwas first an appendage of the Home Office and the Board of Trade, but by the s it had become a separate department with a growing staff and a continuing policy; it was the means by which discipline and pressure were exerted on the colonial governments when such action was considered necessary.
Partly owing to pressure from missionaries, British control was extended to FijiTongaPapua, and other islands in the Pacific Oceanand in the British High Commission for the Western Pacific Islands was created. The French completion of the Suez Canal provided Britain with a much shorter sea route to India.
Britain responded to this opportunity by expanding its port at Adenestablishing a protectorate in Somaliland now Somaliaand extending its influence in the sheikhdoms of southern Arabia and the Persian Gulf.
Cypruswhich was, like Gibraltar and Malta, a link in the chain of communication with India through the Mediterranean, was occupied in Elsewhere, British influence in the Far East expanded with the development of the Straits Settlements and the federated Malay states, and in the s protectorates were formed over Brunei and Sarawak.
The greatest 19th-century extension of British power took place in Africahowever. Britain was the acknowledged ruling force in Egypt from and in the Sudan from History Colonialism and the 19th Century. it might take a long time to load: sorry! STUDY.
PLAY. This war, as well as in general the British-Russian rivalry for Central Asia, was called the "great game" by Rudyard Kipling. chieftain Setawayo. During the 19th century, the .
To help me analyse the question of impact of 19th century colonialism I would like to look at Britain conquering of India. During the 19thcentury a succession of Governors General continued the British conquest in India.
By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by European powers. The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social.
Feb 17, · East India Company. British involvement in India during the 18th century can be divided into two phases, one ending and the other beginning at mid-century. The rise of Great Britain began in the early 16th century and lasted until the midth Great Britain continued to grow through the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
[tags: Colonialism, Great Britain, superpowers, history, ] During this time the tension between the American colonies and.
History Colonialism and the 19th Century. it might take a long time to load: sorry! STUDY. PLAY.
European Colonialism. During the 19th century, the majority of Opium were harvested in China. Britain waged the Opium War () and through the treaty of Nanjing forced them to allow trade and to cede the island of Hong Kong.